ACIDO ROSMARINICO

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Acido rosmarinico (Experimenta et Hypotheses Chemica)

L’acido rosmarinico viene sintetizzato da varie specie di piante, in particolare dal rosmarino. Fu isolato e caratterizzato nel 1958 da due chimici italiani: M. L. Scarpati e G. Oriente.
Da un punto di vista chimico l’acido rosmarinico e un estere dell’acido caffeico ed è un acido polifenolico.
La biosintesi coinvolge due aminoacidi, la L-fenilalanina e la L-Tirosina come mostrato in Figura 1.

Rosmarinic acid biosynthesis
By Michal Sobkowski – Own work, according to: Maike Petersen, Monique S.J. Simmonds, Rosmarinic acid, „Phytochemistry”

Esso ha proprietà antiossidanti, antifungine, antibatteriche, talvolta utilizzato anche come abbronzante.
In studi animali l’acido rosmarinico sembra avere proprietà neuroprotettive, chemioprotettive e antidepressive.
Rosmarinic acid
Rosmarinic acid is synthesized from various plant species, in particular from rosemary. It was isolated and characterized in 1958 by two Italian chemists: M. L. Scarpati and G. Oriente.
From a chemical point of view rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and is a polyphenolic acid.
Biosynthesis involves two amino acids, L-phenylalanine and L-Tyrosine as shown in Figure 1.
It has antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial properties, sometimes it is used as a bronzer too.
In animal studies, rosmarinic acid appears to have neuroprotective, chemioprotective and antidepressant properties.
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FONTI:
1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosmarinic_acid;
2)https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosmarins%C3%A4ure
3)Isolamento costituzione e dell ‘acido rosmarinico (dal rosmarinus off ). M. L. Scarpati, G. Oriente, Ric. Sci, 1958, volume 28, pages 2329-2333
4)Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. Petersen M, Abdullah Y, Benner J, Eberle D, Gehlen K, Hücherig S, Janiak V, Kim KH, Sander M, Weitzel C and Wolters S, Phytochemistry, Oct-Nov 2009, volume 70, issues 15-16, pages 1663-1679, doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.05.010
5)R Domitrovic, I Potocnjak, Z Crncevic-Orlic, M. Skoda: Nephroprotective activities of rosmarinic acid against cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. In: Food Chem Toxicol., 8. Februar 2014, PMID 24518541.
6)A. M. J. J. Verweij-van Vught u. a.: Influence of Rosmarinic acid on opsonization and intracellular killing of Esherishia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by porcine and human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In: Agents Actions, 22, 1987, S. 288–294.
7)X Jin, P Liu, F Yang, YH Zhang, D. Miao: Rosmarinic acid ameliorates depressive-like behaviors in a rat model of CUS and Up-regulates BDNF levels in the hippocampus and hippocampal-derived astrocytes. In: Neurochem Res., 25. September 2013

FIGURA 1 : Rosmarinic acid biosynthesis
By Michal Sobkowski – Own work, according to: Maike Petersen, Monique S.J. Simmonds, Rosmarinic acid, „Phytochemistry”, 62 (2), 2003, p. 121–125, doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00513-7, PMID:12482446, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=67224677
Dr Riccardo Zanaboni
(Esponente del Comitato Scientifico del C.I.R. Centro Italiano Ricerche)

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